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Forming: Design Considerations
Forming is similar to bending. Complex parts such as U-sections and channel sections of different profiles can be produced by doing multiple bends. Good dimensional repeatability and close tolerances are possible with this process.
On bends, the short leg (inside length) should be a minimum of 2.5 X stock thickness + radius.
Minimum hole (and short slot) to bend distance should be 2.5 X the stock thickness + bend radius. For long slots, the distance should be 4 X the stock thickness + bend radius.
Bending using tight radiuses or hard materials often will result in burrs and/or fractures on the outside of the bends. These can be eliminated by using larger bend radiuses and providing relief notches at the edges on the bend line.
Generally, bending perpendicular to rolling direction is better than rolling parallel to the rolling direction. Bending parallel to the rolling direction can often cause fractures in hard materials.
Therefore, bending parallel to rolling direction is not recommended for cold rolled steel > Rb 70. And no bending is acceptable for cold rolled steel > Rb 85.
Hot rolled steel can be bent parallel to the rolling direction.